There are many benefits to circumcision. These include improved penis hygiene, and better health. Men with circumcised penises are less likely to contract STIs and are easier to clean and wash. It also reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer. This is why circumcision is very popular among both men and women. Before you decide to have circumcision, it is important that you understand the benefits.
Reduction in risk of STIs
The scientific community is still debating whether circumcision reduces the risk of STIs. Although the risks of STIs from circumcision are not fully understood, there is evidence that circumcision decreases the risk of developing sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). For example, a recent study in India found that circumcised males had a lower chance of contracting HIV. The study included 810,719 non Muslim males who were tested for STIs and HIV over 73,032 individual-years. Of these, 3375 males underwent non-therapeutic circumcision in hospital or doctor’s clinic settings. Both data were sourced from public and private clinics. The median age at circumcision was 5.9 months, while the range of STIs among circumcised males was
The study involved 499 men who were born between 1972-1973. They were followed for STIs until they reached age 32. Among them, 201 had been circumcised before age three, and 117 had one or more STIs. Among these, the most common STIs were chlamydia, genital herpes, and genital warts. Because the cohort size was much larger than the Christchurch cohort, this study was able to detect a protective effect of circumcision.
Among HIV-negative men, circumcision has been linked to lower risk of genital herpes and human papilloma virus (HPV), which are the main causes of genital warts and cancer. Another study in Uganda found that circumcision significantly reduced HIV risk in heterosexual sex. It did not, however, show any effect on HIV transmission among homosexuals.
The study has its limitations. The risk of gonorrhoea or syphilis among uncircumcised males was higher than that among circumcised. This cross-sectional study had some limitations. The study also included possible confounders such as the occurrence of two sexual partners in uncircumcised men, age, and race.
In heterosexual men, circumcision has shown to reduce the risk of HIV by 35 percent, as well as two other sexually transmitted infections. Also, circumcised males had a 28 percent lower risk of contracting HPV or herpes than those who were not circumcised. However, they were no more likely to transmit syphilis to others. Despite these benefits, only about 30% of men worldwide undergo circumcision. However, in the United States, this number is higher.
The researchers also used data from the cohort study to examine the association between circumcision and HIV infection among men. These men were screened for various STIs including gonorrhea and chlamydia. The study also included a screening for symptoms such as penile sores and gonorrhea. The study’s findings may be used to help develop global prevention strategies for STIs.
Further research is required to understand whether circumcision protects MSM from HIV, HSV, and penile HPV infections. This protective effect may be limited due to the poor quality of existing studies. It may not apply for MSM living in low income countries. To be sure, randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the precise impact of circumcision on male-to-male transmission of STIs.
Prevention of genital hygiene
Circumcision is a tradition in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers have conducted studies of this practice. Most respondents rated circumcision as either very painful or very uncomfortable. However, a minority of respondents found it to be mildly or not painful. These findings support the notion that circumcision has the potential to improve genital hygiene and reduce HIV infection.
Studies have shown that circumcision can reduce the risk of genital infection, including bacterial vignanosis, genital ulcer diseases, and penile inflammation disease in both men and women. Women who partner with circumcised men are less likely to contract bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer than women who are not circumcised.
In Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia, male circumcision is more common among younger men. Compared to younger men, older men are more likely to agree to the procedure. Males who are financially more supportive of the procedure are more likely to accept it. But there are still concerns about circumcision.
It is important to clean the area every day after circumcision. Use warm water to gently wipe the area. You can also use soapy liquid if necessary. Dressings should be changed every few days. To reduce discomfort after a circumcision, you can apply petroleum jelly to the penis.
Circumcision does NOT increase the risk of developing penis cancer. In fact, circumcision can reduce penile inflammation in men who are circumcised. The risk of infection is also reduced by circumcision. It can prevent trichomonas or chancroid infections. However, it cannot prevent gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Some women believe circumcision increases sexual pleasure. In some cases, women do not like it and therefore do not undergo it. While women do not prefer circumcision, they may feel more satisfied with sex with circumcised men. Other studies have also shown that circumcision can increase sex satisfaction.
While circumcision may reduce genital infections, it can also increase behavioral disinhibition, leading men to engage in less genital hygiene practices. These behaviors can reduce circumcision’s partial protective effect. Although there are not many studies that show circumcision to protect against HIV and STIs in full, there is ample evidence to support this view.
Protection against HIV
Circumcision offers many benefits, including protection from HIV and genital warts. Circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility and also increases barrier integrity. It has also been shown to reduce the density of HIV-target cells in the exposed skin. Although the exact mechanism is not known, it is believed to be mediated through epidermal LCs.
Researchers conducted randomized controlled trials in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda involving over 11,000 men. Two studies found that circumcision made men 50% less likely to contract HIV compared to the control group. The ANRS funded the second study which enrolled 3,273 men aged 16-24. At the end of the study, the researchers reported that circumcision protected against HIV by 53% to 61%.
The foreskin is rich with bacterial species. The sub-preputial space of uncircumcised men contains 42 distinct bacterial families. Many of them belong the gram-negative anaerobic Genus Prevotella. This bacteria accounted for more than 20% of the bacterial load in Uganda’s prepuce.
Despite the low prevalence, male circumcision is still recommended to protect against HIV infection in high-risk areas. The World Health Organization states that circumcision can reduce HIV infection risk by 60% but does not guarantee complete protection. Researchers still don’t know why circumcision decreases HIV infection rates, but one hypothesis is that circumcision reduces the number of Langerhans’ and target cells in the foreskin. Since HIV cannot penetrate normal healthy skin, circumcision reduces the risk of infection from HIV. However, the inner foreskin is still susceptible to infection because of its physiology.circumcision frenulum adelaide
HIV replication and transmission depend on the presence Langerhans cells in your foreskin. The lack of a protective barrier of keratin in the foreskin means that the virus can easily penetrate Langerhans cells and reproduce. These cells spread the virus to lymph nodes nearby and infect other immune cell types.
Several observational studies have noted a link between increased male circumcision rates and reduced HIV infection rates in both women and men. A large cohort study was done in Uganda and found that circumcised men were 42% less likely than those who hadn’t. The results were questioned by many researchers. A systematic review of 35 observational studies revealed a positive correlation between increased circumcision and lower rates of HIV transmission from male to female.
Despite these findings, more studies are needed to determine the relationship between men’s circumcision and HIV. A recent study conducted by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that circumcision provides some protection from HIV for women who have sex with circumcised men. This relationship is still subject to further clinical and epidemiological research.